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Start with the Frame: Why you should consider building your own bike

By Bruce Lin

Some cyclists are content to “run what they brung.” Others are addicted to the pursuit of lighter, faster, and better equipment. For those in the second category, you should consider building your own bike component by component, from the frame up.

Maybe you have some spare parts that are going unused. Perhaps you have a cool frame that needs some componentry to be ready to ride. Or, maybe you’re just curious about what it takes to build up your bike piece by piece to customize every detail. This approach isn’t for everyone, but building a bike up from a bare frame can be one of the most rewarding things a gearhead can experience.


While it’s not always as easy or affordable as buying a complete bike, building a bike piece by piece allows you to have complete creative control over your bike. If you want to spend your money on a particular component and save somewhere else, you can. When you pick the parts, the cranks will be the right length, the bars will be the perfect shape, the saddle will be comfortable, and every little piece will be just how you want it to be. There’s no waste or excess. Just pure component joy. So what’s stopping you?

Cost

The conventional wisdom has been that it costs less to buy a complete bike, compared to building one up from a frame. This is true for the most part. Bike manufacturers have deals with component manufacturers, and they buy in quantities that allow them to keep prices lower. This means, for example, it costs Trek less to purchase the same crank for a complete bike than it costs you too buy it yourself.

With the growth of the used cycling marketplace, however, there are exceptions to the rule. The frugal, patient, and tenacious buyers are often rewarded with builds that come out close to what an equivalent complete would have cost. With the deals available on lightly used frames and components, building up a frame can sometimes be the cheaper option.

You could also take quality components off your current frame and transfer them to a different frame. Switching just the frame is, in a way, the easiest way to get on a new bike without breaking the bank. This is the preferred method of many of our employees. I personally have a high-end SRAM drivetrain that’s now breathed life into four different mountain bike frames and will likely continue to do so for a couple more years.

Mechanical know-how

More than anything, the technical challenge of building up a frame stops many cyclists from attempting their own builds. Buying a complete is easier. But building a bike is really not that hard! It just takes patience, perseverance, and the right tools. We live in an age of information, and there’s no reason that any buyer with just a sliver of mechanical aptitude shouldn’t be able to figure out how to put together a bike.

YouTube is now one of the best tools available to learn what goes into building a bike. There are countless Vloggers now who record and stream the complete process of assembling their own builds so you can watch along and learn. With our expert Ride Guides, it easy to figure out parts compatibility, and find the parts you’ll need to get any frame rolling.


Bike frame standards

There are a lot of different standards in the bike industry, and a key part of making sure a bike build goes smoothly is acquiring components that are compatible with your frame. Here are some common bike frame standards you will have to pay attention to when preparing your own build. 

Rear dropouts 

This is where your rear wheel’s hub fits into the frame. This determines what rear wheel and hub is compatible with your frame. 

Most older frames: Quick-release dropouts; 130mm wide on road bikes and 135mm wide on mountain bikes. Vintage bikes are often 126mm and fixed-gear track frames are 120mm. 
Newer mountain bike frames: 12x148mm Boost spacing is the current standard — older models may use the 12x142mm thru-axle standard.
Super-Boost spacing: 157x12mm. This is seen on some new mountain bike models. 
New road and gravel bikes: 12x142mm thru-axles (some odd models use the less common 135mm width).

Brake mount 

This is how your rear brake mounts to the frame. 

Older mountain bike frames: Cantilever or V-brake calipers. These mount to two posts which will be on the fork legs and seat stays.  
Rim brake/Older road bike frames: Rim brake calipers. These mount to a single hole located in the fork crown and a seat stay bridge.  
Modern mountain bike frames: Post-mount or I.S. mount disc brakes. I.S. mount will require the appropriate adaptor for your brake disc size. For post-mount, you might need a caliper spacer if you wish to fit a larger brake rotor.
Road, gravel, and cyclocross bikes: Older models have post mounts for disc brakes. A few years ago, flat-mount disc brake calipers became the preferred standard.

Bottom bracket 

Ooh boy, here’s where it gets complicated. There are many bottom bracket standards.

Threaded bottom brackets: These are typically English Threaded or BSA. Bottom bracket shells are either 68mm or 73mm wide. Fun fact: BSA stands for Birmingham Small Arms!
Press-fit bottom brackets: There are many standards here, such as BB30, PF30, BBRight, and BB90. Generally speaking, the bearings are all pressed into the frame, not threaded. Above all, check your frame’s spec and match it to the correct bottom bracket before ordering.

Front derailleur

This is becoming irrelevant on modern mountain bikes and some gravel bikes, but it’s still important for road bikes.

Braze-on front derailleur: This is a direct-mount option that doesn’t clamp the seat tube. Frames with a braze-on have a tab sticking out from the seattube to mount the derailleur. 
Seat tube clamp front derailleur: You’ll need a derailleur clamp that matches your frame’s seat tube diameter. The dimensions can be found online but it's also very easy to measure your seat tube with calipers. Common sizes are 28.6mm, 31.8mm, and 34.9mm.   

Seatpost diameter

Make sure your post matches your frame. There are shims available to make smaller posts fit larger-diameter seat tubes, but that can make your build a little more complicated.

Road bikes: Typically use 27.2mm, but some will have larger diameter seatposts. MAny Cannondales have 25.4mm seatposts. Some vintage and fixed-gear frames use 26.8mm seatposts. 
Mountain bikes: Usually use 30.9mm or 31.6mm, but there are exceptions. Some XC models use 27.2mm posts. A few bikes use oversized 34.9mm seatposts. 

Steerer tube diameter

This is how your fork fits into the frame’s head tube. Your stem and handlebars clamp to the end of the steerer tube.

Older road and mountain bikes: Straight 1 1/8” steerer tubes, or 1" for vintage models. 
Newer road and mountain bikes: Tapered steerer tubes — 1 1/2” at the bottom tapering to 1 1/8” at the top of the head tube is common for most mountain bike forks. Road, gravel, and, cross forks are usually 1 1/4" at the base and taper to 1 1/8". 
Odd sizes: Straight 1 1/4” or 1 1/2” steerer tubes seen on Giant overdrive and older Cannondale Lefty. 

Other compatibility considerations

Disc rotors and wheels: There are two options, Centerlock and six-bolt.
Tires and rims: If you want tubeless, make sure the rims and tires are both tubeless-ready
Cassette: Your rear wheel’s cassette driver must match your cassette. On road bikes, this is usually just a conventional 11-speed freehub. On a mountain bike, you may need an XD driver for wide-range SRAM cassettes of a Microspline for 12-speed Shimano. Newer road bikes might need XDR drivers for SRAM AXS components. Campagnolo has a proprietary freehub and cassette design.
Shifting components: Typically, you do not want to mix brands, and you want to always match the cog count (i.e., speeds) for cassette, rear derailleur, and shifter.
Front hub spacing and axle: Especially on mountain bikes, make sure your fork and front axle match. The modern standard is 15x110mm — also known as Boost. Some older disc brake road and cyclocross bikes have 15x100mm axles, while newer forks and wheels have 12x100mm axles.

Embrace the challenge!

Plan ahead, make a list, and stay organized. But above all, approach the process of building a bike from the frame up with the right mindset. You’re likely to encounter some challenges along the way. It will be worth it when you’re done!

In the end, you’ll have a greater understanding of and appreciation for how bikes actually work. Most significantly, this project can deepen the connection you have with your machine. Building a bike up is an accomplishment. Every bike I’ve ever built up on my own from a bare frame has had a special place in my heart, and each has been an experience that I'll never forget.

If you're curious about building a bike up from a frame, there's no better time to start than now!

Find the parts and build your perfect bike:

Shop used bike frames

Shop used bike parts

Shop used bike wheels


8 comments


  • I am just finishing building out a single gear Cinelli. I’ve wanted my own Cinelli since I was 11– I’m only 40 years late.

    Christopher Boldt on

  • I’ve built my first mountain bike about 15 years ago and 2 road bikes since then. There’s no complete bike you can buy that will suit every detail a person wants. It’s super fun to build the bike and rewarding to ride the bike you built.

    Jeff Davis on

  • Hello everyone, first of all, thanks for sharing all that information on your website. I live in South America and I am a lifelong fan of the bicycle and I am finally building mine, with my own design.
    The only pieces I have bought are the, the brakes, the wheel rims, the tires and the chainring and crankset.

    I am using lugs to assemble the bike frame, but I have had a problem, the lugs I have manufactured are not very strong and I have not been able to solve the problem.

    I would like to know if there is information on the web that teaches me how to manufacture the lugs, any design that can guide me and correct my errors, or in the worst case, find a manufacturer that will supply them (:::
    in advance Thank you for your collaboration in getting this information
    Luis

    L. Morales on

  • I recently built my own road bike with Shimano 105 all the way and I love it. I did couple test rides and it was fine. I’m wondering if it can be certified

    Kevin on

  • I want to be a Bicycle fixer and create my own

    Madanone on

  • Yes nothing like a bicycle exsersise no noises but if you hear a noise pre maintenance!

    Arnold. polk on

  • Well, I learned to work on bikes decades ago at a local little bike shop in the town I lived in, and it was there that I got confident-enough to build up a bike – a triathlon bike. Back then (and apparently not now?) they used 650c wheels instead of 700c, but all the other components from the road bike I had transferred over just fine. Oh, although I DID have to go to aero-bars instead of just sticking with the drops I had. I ended up with a VERY fast, relative lightweight bike that I never raced, but got lots of friendly compliments about on the rides I took it on.

    Devin Barlow on

  • I got a 2012 new 26" Trek EX9 frame as a warranty replacement for a 2004 Fuel 90 SL Disc. The seatpost was the only thing that transferred to the new frame so I out to build a light weight and rowdy custom bike. With careful shopping for used parts such as a DT Swiss wheelset and Xfusion Velvet fork and select new parts like the XT drive train I built a supper sweet bike. I converted my brand new XT cogset to a wide ratio with OneUp parts and also did the OneUp modification to the derailleur. The used XT crankset got a Race Face wide narrow treatment. Braking was handled with used Avid Elixirs. An Ergon saddle, Bontrager grips and bars and 50 mm Race Face stem and Continental Mtn. King tires round out a 26 pound package that climbs as well as it descends. Great bike but I’m looking to buy or build a 29er now.

    Bruce Sowell on


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